COVID-19 Level 2
Letter to Patients
Remote consults by telephone or Zoom have been a new experience over the COVID lockdown and we hope to continue with them where appropriate into the future although expect that we will now see most of our patients face to face. Difficult times like the COVID crisis often lead to new innovative developments such as telemedicine which we hope to continue.
We look forward to seeing you in the future. If you wish to schedule an appointment please call us on 09 623 1020.
Heart Foundation - Your COVID-19 questions answered
As New Zealand prepares for the shut-down of all but essential services nationwide and people are asked to stay home, it is more important than ever to look after your heart health, especially if you are already living with a heart condition.
COVID-19 is a new type of coronavirus and we are learning more about who is at most risk every day. At this time, we know that people with chronic heart disease, heart failure and high blood pressure are at much higher risk of severe symptoms and the worst outcomes.
Having a heart condition does not mean you are more likely to catch coronavirus, but you are at higher risk of complications if you do catch it.
Advice for people living with heart disease during the Alert Level 4 isolation period:
It is important to keep up heart health practices
Advice for vulnerable people during this time COVID-19.Govt.NZ
HFSA/ACC/AHA Statement Addresses
Concerns Re: Using RAAS Antagonists in
Mar 17, 2020
ACC News Story
*The following joint statement from the ACC, American Heart Association and Heart Failure Society of America was posted online on March 17 and addresses using renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) antagonists in COVID-19. "The continued highest standard of care for cardiovascular disease patients diagnosed with COVID-19 is top priority, but there are no experimental or clinical data demonstrating beneficial or adverse outcomes among COVID-19 patients using ACE-I or ARB medications," said Richard J. Kovacs, MD, FACC. "We urge urgent, additional research that can guide us to optimal care for the millions of people worldwide with cardiovascular disease and who may contract COVID-19. These recommendations will be adjusted as needed to correspond with the latest research."
Patients with underlying cardiovascular diseases appear to have an increased risk for adverse outcomes with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are dominated by respiratory symptoms, some patients also may have severe cardiovascular damage. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors have been shown to be the entry point into human cells for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. In a few experimental studies with animal models, both angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been shown to upregulate ACE2 expression in the heart. Though these have not been shown in human studies, or in the setting of COVID-19, such potential upregulation of ACE2 by ACE inhibitors or ARBs has resulted in a speculation of potential increased risk for COVID-19 infection in patients with background treatment of these medications.
ACE2 is a homolog of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). ACE2 negatively regulates the renin angiotensin system by converting Angiotensin II to vasodilatory
Angiotensin 1-7, diminishing and opposing the vasoconstrictor effect of
angiotensin II. ACE2, ACE, angiotensin II and other renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) system interactions are quite complex, and at times, paradoxical. Furthermore, tissue expression of ACE2 differ in heart, kidneys and lungs of healthy patients, cardiovascular disease patients, and coronavirus-infected patients, and its role in the setting of COVID-19 infection in patients with cardiovascular disease is unclear. Furthermore, in experimental studies, both ACE inhibitors and ARBs have been shown to reduce severe lung injury in certain viral pneumonias, and it has been speculated that these agents could be beneficial in COVID-19.
Currently there are no experimental or clinical data demonstrating beneficial or adverse outcomes with background use of ACE inhibitors, ARBs or other RAAS antagonists in COVID-19 or among COVID-19 patients with a history of cardiovascular disease treated with such agents. The HFSA, ACC, and AHA recommend continuation of RAAS antagonists for those patients who are currently prescribed such agents for indications for which these agents are known to be beneficial, such as heart failure, hypertension, or ischemic heart disease. In the event patients with cardiovascular disease are diagnosed with COVID-19, individualized treatment decisions should be made according to each patient's hemodynamic status and clinical presentation. Therefore, be advised not to add or remove any RAAS-related treatments, beyond actions based on standard clinical practice.
These theoretical concerns and findings of cardiovascular involvement with COVID-19 deserve much more detailed research, and quickly. As further research and developments related to this issue evolve, we will update these recommendations as needed.
2020 Feb 28. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2002032
Keywords: ACC Publications, Cardiology Magazine, Coronavirus, Coronavirus Infections,
COVID-19, Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A, Renin-Angiotensin System, Angiotensin Receptor
Antagonists, Angiotensin II, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Cardiovascular
Diseases, Coronavirus, SARS Virus, Pneumonia, Viral, Lung Injury, Angiotensin I, Heart Failure, Peptide Fragments, Vasoconstrictor Agents, Hypertension, Myocardial Ischemia
© 2020 American College of Cardiology Foundation. All rights reserved.
Meet our Cardiologists
Register and join us on Thursday 16th at 7pm
for an interactive ZOOM Webinar on
"COVID-19 and Cardiovascular Disease".
This Webinar has been approved
by RNZCGP for 1.5 CME Credits.